Elk County vs. Pennsylvania
Comparative Trends Analysis:
Average Earnings Per Job Growth and Change, 1969-2017
Introduction
Elk County:
2017 Avg. Earnings = $50,054
2017 Percent of State = 80.4%
Pennsylvania:
2017 Avg. Earnings = $62,276
The United States economy has generated an impressive number of jobs since the 1970s. The contrast between the nation's vigorous employment growth and the modest performance of other major industrial countries is striking. Despite this rosy track record, the real (inflation adjusted) wages and salaries of many workers have stagnated or slipped in recent years. This development has provoked concerns about the quality of new jobs. Structural shifts in the composition of employment--from high-wage goods-producing to low-wage services-related sectors--is the culprit most often cited for the deteriorating quality of jobs.
Regions vary greatly in the make-up of their labor force, in their industry composition of employment, and their economic experience. Reviewing and examining recent developments in average earnings per job in Elk County with comparisons to Pennsylvania and the nation is an important first step in understanding the economic forces at play in Elk County.
Discussion: Average Annual Earnings Per Job are computed by dividing BEA total industry earnings estimates by the BEA total full- and part-time jobs estimates. No convenient or adequate means exist at the county or regional level for converting the job estimates to a full-time equivalent measure. So, interpret the average earnings per job estimates with caution in consideration of the following issues:
Average earnings per job within industries involving more part-time work is lower than industries involving more full-time work, although there could be little difference in the underlying wage of full-time workers. Such differences could also prevail between counties and regions. An increase in the proportion of part-time jobs over time may erode average earnings per job estimates, although full-time earnings per worker may have remained unchanged.
As with per capita income, average earnings per job may be subject to extreme short-run variation, especially in smaller counties. Major construction projects relating to building dams, nuclear power plants, and private plant construction projects have caused extreme fluctuations in many smaller counties. Such changes typify both small and large agriculture-dependent counties owing to the extreme annual variations in farm incomes. Also, Since average earnings per job are just a simple average, it does not account for variations in the distribution of earnings among high- vs. low-wage jobs.
Elk County Average Earnings Per Job, 1969-2017
Current vs. Constant Dollars
Elk County Average Earnings Per Job, 1969-2017
Current vs. Constant Dollars
Figure 1.
Figure 1 depicts Elk County's annual average earnings per job over 1969-2017 in current and constant (2012) dollars. Constant dollar measurements remove the effects of inflation. They allow for comparison of changes in the real purchasing power of Elk County over time.
When measured in current dollars, Elk County's average earnings per job increased 594.6%, from $7,206 in 1969 to $50,054 in 2017. When measured in constant 2012 dollars to adjust for inflation, it advanced 31.1%, from $36,002 in 1969 to $47,188 in 2017.
Real Average Earnings Per Job, 1969-2017
Real Average Earnings Per Job, 1969-2017
Figure 2.
Figure 2 tracks Elk County's and Pennsylvania's annual real average earnings per job for the period 1969-2017 to illustrate real average earnings per job patterns over time. During this 49-year period, Elk County's real average earnings per job rose from $36,002 in 1969 to $47,188 in 2017, for a net gain of $11,186, or 31.1%. In comparison, Pennsylvania's real average earnings per job increased from $36,672 in 1969 to $58,710 in 2017, for a net gain of $22,039, or 60.1%.
Real Average Earnings Per Job Indices (1969=100): 1969-2017
Real Average Earnings Per Job Indices (1969=100): 1969-2017
Figure 3.
Figure 3 shows Elk County's real average earnings per job growth in a broader context by offering direct comparisons across time with Pennsylvania, the United States. The growth indices shown here express each region's real average earnings per job in 1969 as a base figure of 100, and the real average earnings per jobs in later years as a percentage of the 1969 base figure. This method allows for more direct comparison of differences in real average earnings per job growth between regions that may differ vastly in size.
Elk County's overall real average earnings per job growth was 31.1% over 1969-2017 trailed Pennsylvania's increase of 60.1%, and fell below the United States' increase of 59.1%.
Average Earnings Per Job as a Percent of the U.S. Average: 1969-2017
Average Earnings Per Job as a Percent of the U.S. Average: 1969-2017
Figure 4.
Figure 4 displays the trends for average earnings per job relative to the national average by tracing Elk County and Pennsylvania average earnings per job as a percent of the national average over 1969-2017.
In 1969, Elk County's average earnings per job amounted to 100.1% of the national average; in 2017, it approximated 82.5%. Similarly, in 1969, Pennsylvania's average earnings per job totaled 102.0% of the national average; in 2017, it consisted of 102.7%.
Elk County Real Average Earnings Per Job:
Annual Percent Change, 1970-2017
Elk County Real Average Earnings Per Job:
Annual Percent Change, 1970-2017
Figure 5.
Figure 5 highlights the short-run pattern of Elk County's real average earnings per job growth by tracking the year-to-year percent change over 1970-2017. The average annual percent change for the entire 48-year period is also illustrated on this chart to provide a benchmark for gauging periods of relative high--and relative low--growth against the backdrop of the long-term average.
On average, Elk County's real average earnings per job grew at an annual rate of 0.60% over 1970-2017. The county posted its highest growth in 2010 (6.25%) and posted its lowest growth in 1985 (-3.77%). In 2017, Elk County's real average earnings per job grew by 1.44%
Elk County Real Average Earnings Per Job:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1970-2017
Elk County Real Average Earnings Per Job:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1970-2017
Figure 6.
Over the past four decades some counties have experienced extreme swings in growth, and often such swings have tended to coincide with the decades themselves. Figure 6 again illustrates the annual percent change in Elk County's real average earnings per job since 1970, but this time they are overlayed with average growth rates for the decade of the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010-2017.
During the 1970s, Elk County's annual real average earnings per job growth rate averaged 0.87%. It averaged -0.10% during the 1980s, 0.91% during the 1990s, 0.32% during the 2000s, and 1.08% thus far this decade (2010 to 2017).
Real Average Earnings Per Job Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Real Average Earnings Per Job Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Figure 7.
Figure 7 compares the decade average growth rates for Elk County noted in the previous graph with the corresponding decade averages for Pennsylvania and the nation. As the chart reveals, Elk County's average annual real average earnings per job growth fell below Pennsylvania's average in the 1970s (0.87% vs. 1.17%), fell below Pennsylvania's average in the 1980s (-0.10% vs. 0.40%), trailed Pennsylvania's average throughout the 1990s (0.91% vs. 1.50%), trailed Pennsylvania's average throughout the 2000s (0.32% vs. 0.83%), and amounted to less than Pennsylvania's average over the 8 year period of the last decade, 2010-2017 (1.08% vs. 1.11%).
Finally, relative to nationwide real average earnings per job growth trends, Elk County trailed the nation during the 1970s (0.87% vs. 0.89%), recorded underneath the nation over the 1980s (-0.10% vs. 0.70%), recorded underneath the nation throughout the 1990s (0.91% vs. 1.68%), fell below the nation during the 2000s (0.32% vs. 0.72%), and recorded above the nation over 2010-2017 (1.08% vs. 0.92%).
   
 
Real* Average Earnings Per Job Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change
 
 
 
0.60
0.87
-0.10
0.91
0.32
1.08
1.44
 
1.00
1.17
0.40
1.50
0.83
1.11
1.60
 
0.98
0.89
0.70
1.68
0.72
0.92
1.41
 
   

Tip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Elk County:
Average Earnings Per Job, 1969-2017
 
1969
 
7,206
0.200
36,002
100.0
N
98.17
100.14
1970
 
7,345
0.210
35,059
97.4
-2.62
94.48
96.45
1971
 
7,692
0.218
35,217
97.8
0.45
93.30
94.66
1972
 
8,221
0.226
36,398
101.1
3.35
92.78
94.33
1973
 
8,758
0.238
36,797
102.2
1.09
92.30
93.57
1974
 
9,441
0.263
35,925
99.8
-2.37
91.98
94.85
1975
 
10,186
0.285
35,779
99.4
-0.41
91.52
94.82
1976
 
11,238
0.300
37,419
103.9
4.58
93.40
97.07
1977
 
12,280
0.320
38,392
106.6
2.60
94.07
98.70
1978
 
13,342
0.342
38,999
108.3
1.58
94.34
98.91
1979
 
14,588
0.373
39,163
108.8
0.42
95.19
99.91
1980
 
15,636
0.413
37,895
105.3
-3.24
95.57
99.65
1981
 
17,284
0.450
38,445
106.8
1.45
97.52
101.13
1982
 
18,124
0.475
38,191
106.1
-0.66
98.00
100.68
1983
 
19,339
0.495
39,089
108.6
2.35
99.76
102.15
1984
 
21,049
0.513
40,996
113.9
4.88
102.14
104.23
1985
 
20,962
0.531
39,451
109.6
-3.77
97.82
99.14
1986
 
20,872
0.543
38,445
106.8
-2.55
93.99
94.48
1987
 
21,892
0.560
39,118
108.7
1.75
94.34
94.60
1988
 
22,934
0.582
39,438
109.5
0.82
93.00
93.89
1989
 
23,458
0.607
38,652
107.4
-1.99
90.43
92.04
1990
 
23,769
0.634
37,518
104.2
-2.94
87.89
89.28
1991
 
25,119
0.655
38,366
106.6
2.26
89.16
91.14
1992
 
27,298
0.672
40,611
112.8
5.85
90.84
92.80
1993
 
29,267
0.689
42,483
118.0
4.61
94.36
97.09
1994
 
30,125
0.703
42,834
119.0
0.83
94.53
97.32
1995
 
30,156
0.718
41,994
116.6
-1.96
92.85
95.26
1996
 
30,072
0.733
41,000
113.9
-2.37
89.60
91.49
1997
 
31,258
0.746
41,888
116.3
2.17
89.89
91.18
1998
 
31,343
0.752
41,671
115.7
-0.52
86.16
86.87
1999
 
32,175
0.763
42,148
117.1
1.15
85.08
85.07
2000
 
32,685
0.782
41,778
116.0
-0.88
82.98
81.76
2001
 
32,921
0.797
41,286
114.7
-1.18
79.95
79.37
2002
 
34,021
0.808
42,112
117.0
2.00
80.35
80.23
2003
 
35,536
0.824
43,149
119.9
2.46
80.95
81.40
2004
 
37,254
0.844
44,134
122.6
2.28
80.38
81.95
2005
 
37,864
0.868
43,616
121.1
-1.17
79.78
81.17
2006
 
39,510
0.892
44,307
123.1
1.58
81.49
81.56
2007
 
40,323
0.914
44,098
122.5
-0.47
80.69
81.65
2008
 
42,350
0.942
44,967
124.9
1.97
83.36
84.20
2009
 
40,874
0.941
43,439
120.7
-3.40
80.80
81.68
2010
 
44,172
0.957
46,154
128.2
6.25
83.74
84.64
2011
 
44,360
0.981
45,205
125.6
-2.06
81.58
82.72
2012
 
44,096
1.000
44,096
122.5
-2.45
78.96
79.71
2013
 
45,292
1.013
44,690
124.1
1.35
78.88
80.71
2014
 
47,712
1.029
46,381
128.8
3.78
81.41
83.15
2015
 
47,863
1.031
46,412
128.9
0.07
79.67
81.99
2016
 
48,486
1.042
46,516
129.2
0.22
80.50
82.49
2017
 
50,054
1.061
47,188
131.1
1.44
80.37
82.52
Source: Calculations by the Pennsylvania Regional Economic Analysis Project (PA-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2018
REAP_PI_CA1400_1400_PSN
 
   

Tip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Pennsylvania:
Average Earnings Per Job, 1969-2017
 
1969
 
7,340
0.200
36,672
100.0
N
102.00
1970
 
7,774
0.210
37,105
101.2
1.18
102.08
1971
 
8,244
0.218
37,746
102.9
1.73
101.46
1972
 
8,861
0.226
39,231
107.0
3.93
101.67
1973
 
9,489
0.238
39,867
108.7
1.62
101.37
1974
 
10,264
0.263
39,055
106.5
-2.03
103.11
1975
 
11,130
0.285
39,094
106.6
0.10
103.61
1976
 
12,031
0.300
40,062
109.2
2.48
103.92
1977
 
13,054
0.320
40,812
111.3
1.87
104.92
1978
 
14,142
0.342
41,338
112.7
1.29
104.84
1979
 
15,325
0.373
41,141
112.2
-0.48
104.95
1980
 
16,362
0.413
39,653
108.1
-3.62
104.27
1981
 
17,723
0.450
39,421
107.5
-0.58
103.70
1982
 
18,493
0.475
38,969
106.3
-1.15
102.73
1983
 
19,385
0.495
39,182
106.8
0.55
102.39
1984
 
20,608
0.513
40,137
109.5
2.44
102.05
1985
 
21,428
0.531
40,328
110.0
0.48
101.35
1986
 
22,207
0.543
40,904
111.5
1.43
100.52
1987
 
23,204
0.560
41,463
113.1
1.37
100.27
1988
 
24,661
0.582
42,408
115.6
2.28
100.96
1989
 
25,942
0.607
42,745
116.6
0.79
101.78
1990
 
27,044
0.634
42,686
116.4
-0.14
101.57
1991
 
28,173
0.655
43,029
117.3
0.80
102.22
1992
 
30,050
0.672
44,705
121.9
3.89
102.16
1993
 
31,015
0.689
45,020
122.8
0.71
102.89
1994
 
31,870
0.703
45,314
123.6
0.65
102.95
1995
 
32,478
0.718
45,228
123.3
-0.19
102.59
1996
 
33,561
0.733
45,757
124.8
1.17
102.11
1997
 
34,774
0.746
46,599
127.1
1.84
101.44
1998
 
36,376
0.752
48,362
131.9
3.78
100.82
1999
 
37,816
0.763
49,537
135.1
2.43
99.98
2000
 
39,390
0.782
50,349
137.3
1.64
98.53
2001
 
41,178
0.797
51,642
140.8
2.57
99.28
2002
 
42,344
0.808
52,413
142.9
1.49
99.85
2003
 
43,897
0.824
53,300
145.3
1.69
100.55
2004
 
46,349
0.844
54,909
149.7
3.02
101.96
2005
 
47,460
0.868
54,669
149.1
-0.44
101.73
2006
 
48,483
0.892
54,369
148.3
-0.55
100.08
2007
 
49,973
0.914
54,652
149.0
0.52
101.19
2008
 
50,803
0.942
53,943
147.1
-1.30
101.01
2009
 
50,584
0.941
53,759
146.6
-0.34
101.09
2010
 
52,747
0.957
55,114
150.3
2.52
101.07
2011
 
54,379
0.981
55,415
151.1
0.55
101.40
2012
 
55,847
1.000
55,847
152.3
0.78
100.94
2013
 
57,422
1.013
56,659
154.5
1.45
102.33
2014
 
58,607
1.029
56,973
155.4
0.56
102.14
2015
 
60,074
1.031
58,253
158.9
2.25
102.91
2016
 
60,235
1.042
57,787
157.6
-0.80
102.48
2017
 
62,276
1.061
58,710
160.1
1.60
102.66
Source: Calculations by the Pennsylvania Regional Economic Analysis Project (PA-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2018
REAP_PI_CA1400_1400_PSN
 
   

Tip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
United States:
Average Earnings Per Job, 1969-2017
 
1969
 
7,196
0.200
35,953
100.0
N
1970
 
7,615
0.210
36,349
101.1
1.10
1971
 
8,125
0.218
37,202
103.5
2.35
1972
 
8,715
0.226
38,587
107.3
3.72
1973
 
9,360
0.238
39,326
109.4
1.92
1974
 
9,954
0.263
37,877
105.4
-3.69
1975
 
10,742
0.285
37,733
104.9
-0.38
1976
 
11,577
0.300
38,550
107.2
2.17
1977
 
12,442
0.320
38,898
108.2
0.90
1978
 
13,489
0.342
39,429
109.7
1.36
1979
 
14,602
0.373
39,199
109.0
-0.58
1980
 
15,692
0.413
38,030
105.8
-2.98
1981
 
17,091
0.450
38,015
105.7
-0.04
1982
 
18,001
0.475
37,932
105.5
-0.22
1983
 
18,932
0.495
38,267
106.4
0.88
1984
 
20,194
0.513
39,331
109.4
2.78
1985
 
21,143
0.531
39,792
110.7
1.17
1986
 
22,092
0.543
40,692
113.2
2.26
1987
 
23,141
0.560
41,350
115.0
1.62
1988
 
24,425
0.582
42,003
116.8
1.58
1989
 
25,487
0.607
41,996
116.8
-0.02
1990
 
26,625
0.634
42,025
116.9
0.07
1991
 
27,561
0.655
42,095
117.1
0.17
1992
 
29,415
0.672
43,760
121.7
3.96
1993
 
30,143
0.689
43,754
121.7
-0.01
1994
 
30,956
0.703
44,015
122.4
0.60
1995
 
31,658
0.718
44,085
122.6
0.16
1996
 
32,868
0.733
44,813
124.6
1.65
1997
 
34,281
0.746
45,939
127.8
2.51
1998
 
36,079
0.752
47,967
133.4
4.41
1999
 
37,823
0.763
49,547
137.8
3.29
2000
 
39,978
0.782
51,100
142.1
3.13
2001
 
41,477
0.797
52,016
144.7
1.79
2002
 
42,407
0.808
52,491
146.0
0.91
2003
 
43,657
0.824
53,009
147.4
0.99
2004
 
45,458
0.844
53,853
149.8
1.59
2005
 
46,650
0.868
53,737
149.5
-0.22
2006
 
48,444
0.892
54,325
151.1
1.09
2007
 
49,385
0.914
54,009
150.2
-0.58
2008
 
50,294
0.942
53,402
148.5
-1.12
2009
 
50,038
0.941
53,179
147.9
-0.42
2010
 
52,187
0.957
54,529
151.7
2.54
2011
 
53,628
0.981
54,650
152.0
0.22
2012
 
55,324
1.000
55,324
153.9
1.23
2013
 
56,117
1.013
55,371
154.0
0.09
2014
 
57,382
1.029
55,782
155.2
0.74
2015
 
58,377
1.031
56,607
157.4
1.48
2016
 
58,777
1.042
56,389
156.8
-0.38
2017
 
60,660
1.061
57,187
159.1
1.41
Source: Calculations by the Pennsylvania Regional Economic Analysis Project (PA-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2018
REAP_PI_CA1400_1400_PN
 
   
Copyright © 2019. Pacific Northwest Regional Economic Analysis Project (PNREAP). All Rights Reserved.

Please stay tuned...
while your request is processing:

Please wait while your request is being processed...
To offer the most comprehensive set of interactive options in support of your research, PA-REAP calculates and crunches most of the data and generates the narrative and graphic analysis on demand in response to your request.
Your request will soon be available.
Just a few more seconds....Your request has been generated and is now loading the results.