Cumberland County vs. Pennsylvania
Comparative Trends Analysis:
Total Personal Income Growth and Change, 1969-2020
Introduction
Cumberland County vs. Pennsylvania
Cumberland County:
2020 TPI = $15,759,690K
2020 Percent of State = 2.0%
Pennsylvania:
2020 TPI = $788,725,185K
2020 Percent of U.S. = 4.0%
The annual total personal incomes (TPI) estimates compiled by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, (BEA) are among the most comprehensive, consistent, comparable and timely measures of economic activity available statewide and at the national levels. Personal income estimates are also the best available local level indicator of general purchasing power, and are therefore central to tracking and comparing county patterns of economic growth and change.
The following graphs highlight trends in the pattern of growth and change in the total personal income of Cumberland County and Pennsylvania with comparison to the nation. The data used are those compiled by the Regional Income and Product Divisions of the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. The 2012 constant dollar (real) estimates of total personal income reported in the tables and portrayed graphically below are determined using the Implicit Price Deflator for Personal Consumption.
Data Definition:
Personal income is the income received by persons from participation in production, plus transfer receipts from government and business, plus government interest (which is treated like a transfer receipt). It is defined as the sum of wages and salaries, supplements to wages and salaries, proprietors' income with inventory valuation and capital consumption adjustments, rental income of persons with capital consumption adjustment, personal dividend income, personal interest income, and personal current transfer receipts, less contributions for government social insurance. Because the personal income of an area represents the income that is received by, or on behalf of, all the persons who live in that area, and because the estimates of some components of personal income (wages and salaries, supplements to wages and salaries, and contributions for government social insurance) are made on a place-of-work basis, state personal income includes an adjustment for residence. The residence adjustment represents the net flow of compensation (less contributions for government social insurance) of interstate commuters.
Cumberland County Total Personal Income, 1970-2020
Current vs. Constant Dollars (Millions)
Cumberland County Total Personal Income, 1970-2020
Current vs. Constant Dollars (Millions)
Figure 1.
Figure 1 depicts Cumberland County's annual total personal income over 1970-2020 in current and constant (2012) dollars. Constant dollar measurements remove the effects of inflation. They allow for comparison of changes in the real purchasing power of Cumberland County over time.
When measured in current dollars, Cumberland County's total personal income increased 2,146.6%, from $701M in 1970 to $15,760M in 2020. When measured in constant 2012 dollars to adjust for inflation, it advanced 322.4%, from $3,355M in 1970 to $14,169M in 2020.
Real Total Personal Income, 1969-2020 (Millions)
Real Total Personal Income, 1969-2020 (Millions)
Figure 2.
Figure 2 traces Cumberland County's and Pennsylvania's annual real total personal income for the period 1969-2020 to illustrate real total personal income patterns over time. During this 52-year period, Cumberland County's real total personal income rose from $3,178M in 1969 to $14,169M in 2020, for a net gain of $10,991M, or 345.9%. In comparison, Pennsylvania's real total personal income advanced from $227,003M in 1969 to $709,126M in 2020, for a net advance of $482,123M, or 212.4%.
Real Total Personal Income Indices (1969=100): 1969-2020
Real Total Personal Income Indices (1969=100): 1969-2020
Figure 3.
Figure 3 shows Cumberland County's real total personal income growth in a broader context by offering direct comparisons across time with Pennsylvania, the United States. The growth indices shown here express each region's real total personal income in 1969 as a base figure of 100, and the real total personal incomes in later years as a percentage of the 1969 base figure. This method allows for more direct comparison of differences in real total personal income growth between regions that may differ vastly in size.
Cumberland County's overall real total personal income growth was 345.9% over 1969-2020 outpaced Pennsylvania's increase of 212.4%, and outpaced the United States' increase of 345.1%.
Total Personal Income as a Percent of the Pennsylvania Total: 1969-2020
Total Personal Income as a Percent of the Pennsylvania Total: 1969-2020
Figure 4.
Another interesting and insightful way of contrasting the total personal income growth of Cumberland County is to trace its individual percentage contributions to Pennsylvania's statewide total personal income over time, as shown in Figure 4. A rising share means a region's total personal income grew faster, or declined less, than Pennsylvania's total personal income, while a declining share shows it grew more slowly.
In 1969, Cumberland County's total personal income totaled 1.4% of Pennsylvania's total personal income, while in 2020 it totaled 2.0% thereby yielding a +0.6% share-shift.
   
 
Total Personal Income Share-Shift
2020 vs. 1969
 
Share-
Shift*
 
2020
vs.
1969
+0.60%
=
2.00%
-
1.40%
 
   
Cumberland County Real Total Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1970-2020
Cumberland County Real Total Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change, 1970-2020
Figure 5.
Figure 5 highlights the short-run pattern of Cumberland County's real total personal income growth by tracking the year-to-year percent change over 1970-2020. The average annual percent change for the entire 51-year period is also illustrated on this chart to provide a benchmark for gauging periods of relative high--and relative low--growth against the backdrop of the long-term average.
On average, Cumberland County's real total personal income grew at an annual rate of 2.99% over 1970-2020. The county posted its highest growth in 1972 (7.62%) and posted its lowest growth in 2009 (-1.07%). In 2020, Cumberland County's real total personal income grew by 7.46%
Cumberland County Real Total Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1970-2020
Cumberland County Real Total Personal Income:
Annual Percent Change and Decade Averages Over 1970-2020
Figure 6.
Over the past five decades some counties have experienced extreme swings in growth, and often such swings have tended to coincide with the decades themselves. Figure 6 again illustrates the annual percent change in Cumberland County's real total personal income since 1970, but this time they are displayed with average growth rates for the decade of the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2020.
During the 1970s, Cumberland County's annual real total personal income growth rate averaged 3.43%. It averaged 4.02% throughout the 1980s, 2.78% in the 1990s, 1.82% throughout the 2000s, 2.46% throughout the 2010s, and 7.46% in 2020.
Real Total Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Real Total Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change by Decade
Figure 7.
Figure 7 compares the decade average growth rates for Cumberland County noted in the previous graph with the corresponding decade averages for Pennsylvania and the nation. As the chart reveals, Cumberland County's average annual real total personal income growth recorded above Pennsylvania's average throughout the 1970s (3.43% vs. 2.58%), topped Pennsylvania's average during the 1980s (4.02% vs. 2.21%), outgained Pennsylvania's average in the 1990s (2.78% vs. 2.37%), surpassed Pennsylvania's average throughout the 2000s (1.82% vs. 1.77%), and led Pennsylvania's average over the 10 year period of the last decade, 2010-2019 (2.46% vs. 2.09%). In 2020, Cumberland County's growth has surpassed Pennsylvania's average (7.46% vs. 5.74%).
Finally, relative to nationwide real total personal income growth trends, Cumberland County trailed the nation throughout the 1970s (3.43% vs. 3.50%), outgained the nation in the 1980s (4.02% vs. 3.17%), posted below the nation during the 1990s (2.78% vs. 3.30%), fell under the nation in the 2000s (1.82% vs. 2.04%), and fell under the nation over 2010-2019 (2.46% vs. 2.70%). In 2020, growth for Cumberland County has outperformed the national average (7.46% vs. 5.30%).
   
 
Real* Total Personal Income Growth:
Average Annual Percent Change
 
 
 
2.99
3.43
4.02
2.78
1.82
2.46
7.46
 
2.27
2.58
2.21
2.37
1.77
2.09
5.74
 
2.99
3.50
3.17
3.30
2.04
2.70
5.30
 
   

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Cumberland County:
Total Personal Income, 1969-2020
 
1969
 
634,825
0.200
3,177,939
100.0
N
1.40
1970
 
701,479
0.209
3,354,754
105.6
5.56
1.44
1971
 
767,621
0.218
3,521,520
110.8
4.97
1.48
1972
 
854,321
0.225
3,789,908
119.3
7.62
1.51
1973
 
949,734
0.238
3,997,870
125.8
5.49
1.53
1974
 
1,047,194
0.262
3,992,504
125.6
-0.13
1.54
1975
 
1,134,319
0.284
3,991,973
125.6
-0.01
1.52
1976
 
1,252,557
0.300
4,178,812
131.5
4.68
1.54
1977
 
1,372,018
0.319
4,297,898
135.2
2.85
1.54
1978
 
1,508,626
0.341
4,418,293
139.0
2.80
1.54
1979
 
1,650,096
0.372
4,438,367
139.7
0.45
1.52
1980
 
1,829,235
0.412
4,441,831
139.8
0.08
1.54
1981
 
2,040,001
0.449
4,546,368
143.1
2.35
1.55
1982
 
2,240,116
0.474
4,729,675
148.8
4.03
1.59
1983
 
2,397,354
0.494
4,855,106
152.8
2.65
1.63
1984
 
2,643,681
0.512
5,159,107
162.3
6.26
1.66
1985
 
2,870,128
0.530
5,412,170
170.3
4.91
1.70
1986
 
3,098,807
0.542
5,719,044
180.0
5.67
1.75
1987
 
3,321,695
0.559
5,946,997
187.1
3.99
1.77
1988
 
3,608,884
0.580
6,218,140
195.7
4.56
1.78
1989
 
3,982,162
0.606
6,574,262
206.9
5.73
1.81
1990
 
4,206,744
0.632
6,652,977
209.3
1.20
1.81
1991
 
4,451,670
0.653
6,812,564
214.4
2.40
1.84
1992
 
4,750,069
0.671
7,080,461
222.8
3.93
1.86
1993
 
4,941,595
0.688
7,186,938
226.2
1.50
1.86
1994
 
5,122,036
0.702
7,297,075
229.6
1.53
1.86
1995
 
5,363,340
0.717
7,483,278
235.5
2.55
1.86
1996
 
5,688,047
0.732
7,770,131
244.5
3.83
1.88
1997
 
6,058,519
0.745
8,134,642
256.0
4.69
1.91
1998
 
6,356,116
0.751
8,466,919
266.4
4.08
1.90
1999
 
6,585,635
0.762
8,646,651
272.1
2.12
1.88
2000
 
6,931,543
0.781
8,876,352
279.3
2.66
1.85
2001
 
7,285,901
0.797
9,146,707
287.8
3.05
1.87
2002
 
7,544,171
0.807
9,348,183
294.2
2.20
1.90
2003
 
7,888,551
0.824
9,573,717
301.3
2.41
1.92
2004
 
8,247,767
0.844
9,767,260
307.3
2.02
1.90
2005
 
8,558,623
0.869
9,851,539
310.0
0.86
1.89
2006
 
8,934,134
0.893
10,002,165
314.7
1.53
1.87
2007
 
9,498,217
0.916
10,367,648
326.2
3.65
1.87
2008
 
9,862,433
0.943
10,455,800
329.0
0.85
1.87
2009
 
9,729,474
0.941
10,343,682
325.5
-1.07
1.90
2010
 
10,084,610
0.957
10,532,560
331.4
1.83
1.88
2011
 
10,618,526
0.982
10,816,467
340.4
2.70
1.88
2012
 
11,171,235
1.000
11,171,235
351.5
3.28
1.90
2013
 
11,376,027
1.014
11,224,053
353.2
0.47
1.92
2014
 
11,962,720
1.029
11,627,047
365.9
3.59
1.93
2015
 
12,533,309
1.031
12,154,573
382.5
4.54
1.95
2016
 
12,679,879
1.041
12,174,866
383.1
0.17
1.92
2017
 
13,191,040
1.061
12,438,393
391.4
2.16
1.94
2018
 
13,861,648
1.083
12,797,179
402.7
2.88
1.94
2019
 
14,493,368
1.099
13,185,139
414.9
3.03
1.97
2020
 
15,759,690
1.112
14,169,198
445.9
7.46
2.00
Source: Calculations by the Pennsylvania Regional Economic Analysis Project (PA-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2021
REAP_PI_CA1400_300_PSN
 
   

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
Pennsylvania:
Total Personal Income, 1969-2020
 
1969
 
45,346,106
0.200
227,002,934
100.0
N
5.73
1970
 
48,843,711
0.209
233,590,201
102.9
2.90
5.71
1971
 
51,835,461
0.218
237,799,160
104.8
1.80
5.61
1972
 
56,579,789
0.225
250,997,201
110.6
5.55
5.57
1973
 
62,032,948
0.238
261,125,391
115.0
4.04
5.47
1974
 
68,133,164
0.262
259,762,721
114.4
-0.52
5.47
1975
 
74,472,731
0.284
262,089,499
115.5
0.90
5.47
1976
 
81,283,216
0.300
271,179,075
119.5
3.47
5.43
1977
 
89,174,091
0.319
279,341,199
123.1
3.01
5.40
1978
 
98,271,999
0.341
287,807,875
126.8
3.03
5.30
1979
 
108,706,050
0.372
292,393,485
128.8
1.59
5.24
1980
 
119,088,365
0.412
289,175,769
127.4
-1.10
5.15
1981
 
131,482,121
0.449
293,022,489
129.1
1.33
5.07
1982
 
140,474,119
0.474
296,590,417
130.7
1.22
5.05
1983
 
147,180,811
0.494
298,069,608
131.3
0.50
4.96
1984
 
158,975,274
0.512
310,238,031
136.7
4.08
4.85
1985
 
168,415,810
0.530
317,579,925
139.9
2.37
4.80
1986
 
177,108,098
0.542
326,864,200
144.0
2.92
4.76
1987
 
187,611,091
0.559
335,889,519
148.0
2.76
4.75
1988
 
203,157,551
0.580
350,042,302
154.2
4.21
4.76
1989
 
220,029,706
0.606
363,253,163
160.0
3.77
4.77
1990
 
232,898,680
0.632
368,329,901
162.3
1.40
4.76
1991
 
242,566,278
0.653
371,208,628
163.5
0.78
4.79
1992
 
256,051,946
0.671
381,671,480
168.1
2.82
4.73
1993
 
265,789,353
0.688
386,557,714
170.3
1.28
4.71
1994
 
275,144,867
0.702
391,983,342
172.7
1.40
4.63
1995
 
287,676,365
0.717
401,384,612
176.8
2.40
4.58
1996
 
302,375,613
0.732
413,058,867
182.0
2.91
4.53
1997
 
317,520,134
0.745
426,327,417
187.8
3.21
4.48
1998
 
334,742,455
0.751
445,907,093
196.4
4.59
4.40
1999
 
349,385,320
0.762
458,727,640
202.1
2.88
4.36
2000
 
373,971,605
0.781
478,898,201
211.0
4.40
4.32
2001
 
389,069,835
0.797
488,437,575
215.2
1.99
4.32
2002
 
396,229,237
0.807
490,978,212
216.3
0.52
4.33
2003
 
410,471,306
0.824
498,156,880
219.4
1.46
4.32
2004
 
434,175,861
0.844
514,164,420
226.5
3.21
4.33
2005
 
453,298,198
0.869
521,776,092
229.9
1.48
4.28
2006
 
476,775,101
0.893
533,771,189
235.1
2.30
4.19
2007
 
506,789,684
0.916
553,179,300
243.7
3.64
4.22
2008
 
526,290,259
0.943
557,954,157
245.8
0.86
4.22
2009
 
513,386,283
0.941
545,795,627
240.4
-2.18
4.25
2010
 
537,282,210
0.957
561,147,827
247.2
2.81
4.27
2011
 
564,695,398
0.982
575,221,960
253.4
2.51
4.24
2012
 
587,665,984
1.000
587,665,984
258.9
2.16
4.20
2013
 
593,682,098
1.014
585,751,029
258.0
-0.33
4.18
2014
 
619,079,371
1.029
601,708,059
265.1
2.72
4.14
2015
 
643,988,051
1.031
624,527,766
275.1
3.79
4.11
2016
 
661,160,078
1.041
634,827,436
279.7
1.65
4.11
2017
 
679,620,194
1.061
640,842,796
282.3
0.95
4.03
2018
 
716,336,524
1.083
661,327,318
291.3
3.20
4.05
2019
 
737,160,920
1.099
670,621,823
295.4
1.41
4.01
2020
 
788,725,185
1.112
709,125,813
312.4
5.74
4.02
Source: Calculations by the Pennsylvania Regional Economic Analysis Project (PA-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2021
REAP_PI_CA1400_300_PSN
 
   

Interactive TableTip: To augment your analysis click on the column headers in the following table to rank and/or sort the data.

   
 
United States:
Total Personal Income, 1969-2020
 
1969
 
791,229,000
0.200
3,960,898,078
100.0
N
1970
 
855,525,000
0.209
4,091,463,415
103.3
3.30
1971
 
924,613,000
0.218
4,241,733,187
107.1
3.67
1972
 
1,016,408,000
0.225
4,508,952,178
113.8
6.30
1973
 
1,133,468,000
0.238
4,771,291,463
120.5
5.82
1974
 
1,244,912,000
0.262
4,746,318,960
119.8
-0.52
1975
 
1,362,505,000
0.284
4,795,020,236
121.1
1.03
1976
 
1,495,704,000
0.300
4,990,004,671
126.0
4.07
1977
 
1,651,632,000
0.319
5,173,799,455
130.6
3.68
1978
 
1,855,849,000
0.341
5,435,199,883
137.2
5.05
1979
 
2,073,257,000
0.372
5,576,569,477
140.8
2.60
1980
 
2,313,160,000
0.412
5,616,920,014
141.8
0.72
1981
 
2,592,915,000
0.449
5,778,598,650
145.9
2.88
1982
 
2,779,794,000
0.474
5,869,125,689
148.2
1.57
1983
 
2,968,676,000
0.494
6,012,143,060
151.8
2.44
1984
 
3,279,488,000
0.512
6,399,875,105
161.6
6.45
1985
 
3,510,471,000
0.530
6,619,658,313
167.1
3.43
1986
 
3,719,647,000
0.542
6,864,843,865
173.3
3.70
1987
 
3,946,593,000
0.559
7,065,782,831
178.4
2.93
1988
 
4,267,813,000
0.580
7,353,480,478
185.7
4.07
1989
 
4,609,667,000
0.606
7,610,227,498
192.1
3.49
1990
 
4,897,821,000
0.632
7,745,917,351
195.6
1.78
1991
 
5,067,291,000
0.653
7,754,672,890
195.8
0.11
1992
 
5,409,920,000
0.671
8,064,036,251
203.6
3.99
1993
 
5,648,732,000
0.688
8,215,381,483
207.4
1.88
1994
 
5,940,128,000
0.702
8,462,564,643
213.7
3.01
1995
 
6,286,143,000
0.717
8,770,831,996
221.4
3.64
1996
 
6,673,186,000
0.732
9,115,876,182
230.1
3.93
1997
 
7,086,935,000
0.745
9,515,474,368
240.2
4.38
1998
 
7,601,594,000
0.751
10,126,007,726
255.6
6.42
1999
 
8,006,585,000
0.762
10,512,295,835
265.4
3.81
2000
 
8,654,561,000
0.781
11,082,803,176
279.8
5.43
2001
 
9,009,842,000
0.797
11,310,939,540
285.6
2.06
2002
 
9,157,682,000
0.807
11,347,527,942
286.5
0.32
2003
 
9,491,393,000
0.824
11,518,960,412
290.8
1.51
2004
 
10,037,313,000
0.844
11,886,495,032
300.1
3.19
2005
 
10,599,603,000
0.869
12,200,841,429
308.0
2.64
2006
 
11,374,142,000
0.893
12,733,863,998
321.5
4.37
2007
 
12,014,107,000
0.916
13,113,833,039
331.1
2.98
2008
 
12,475,898,000
0.943
13,226,501,988
333.9
0.86
2009
 
12,073,407,000
0.941
12,835,583,977
324.1
-2.96
2010
 
12,586,509,000
0.957
13,145,590,985
331.9
2.42
2011
 
13,330,436,000
0.982
13,578,930,427
342.8
3.30
2012
 
14,003,346,000
1.000
14,003,346,000
353.5
3.13
2013
 
14,189,228,000
1.014
13,999,672,435
353.4
-0.03
2014
 
14,969,527,000
1.029
14,549,483,414
367.3
3.93
2015
 
15,681,233,000
1.031
15,207,371,310
383.9
4.52
2016
 
16,092,713,000
1.041
15,451,773,438
390.1
1.61
2017
 
16,845,028,000
1.061
15,883,893,598
401.0
2.80
2018
 
17,681,159,000
1.083
16,323,380,232
412.1
2.77
2019
 
18,402,004,000
1.099
16,740,965,412
422.7
2.56
2020
 
19,607,447,000
1.112
17,628,632,951
445.1
5.30
Source: Calculations by the Pennsylvania Regional Economic Analysis Project (PA-REAP)
with data provided by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis
November 2021
REAP_PI_CA1400_300_PN
 
   
Copyright © 2022. Pacific Northwest Regional Economic Analysis Project (PNREAP). All Rights Reserved.

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